Sunday, August 20, 2006

Can South Africa Help Dismantle Ugandan Apartheid?

By John A. Akec

No one knows the language of oppressor better than those who have experienced it. What is taking place in Northern and Eastern Uganda has been described as genocide. But the policies that sustained the war have in that part of the world also created an apartheid system of sort, which is not less evil, or less destructive than South Africa’s.

It qualifies as genocide because the government’s counter insurgency policy has resulted in massive death rates that are 3 times those experienced in Darfur. That is, more than 1000 people die every week in the displaced persons camps where 2 million Acholis have been forcefully evacuated from their homelands. The figure is equivalent to 98% of population of Northern Uganda region.

The government’s counter insurgency policy has fostered a form of economic apartheid between Northern Uganda and the rest of the country. Those relocated into the concentration camps are no longer economically active and unable to earn a living. As the time went by, the forced unemployment has impoverished the population to levels of destitution as insecurity scared away potential investors from the region.

Nowhere are economic disparities between Northern Uganda and the rest of Uganda apparent than in the survey on private sector investment survey conducted by Uganda Investment Authority (UIA) in collaboration with Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS), and the Bank of Uganda (BOU) in 2003. In that survey, of 765 new enterprises (companies) that returned the survey, 77.9% (or 596) were located in Central/Southern region, 12.3%(or 94) in Eastern region, 8.5% (65) in the Western region, and 1.3% (10) in Northern region.

The same report showed that employment opportunities that resulted from new investment in 2001 in terms of number of jobs created were distributed regionally as follows: 71.4% of jobs in Central/Southern region, 18.8% in Eastern region, 9.4% in Western region, and just about 0.4% in Northern region.

Small wonder, other reports by international NGOs working in displaced persons camps in Northern Uganda say while those living below poverty line fell from 57% in 1992 to 37% in 2003 in the West and Central Uganda, those living below poverty line in Northern Uganda has shot up to over 95% over the same period. Over 250,000 children in the region go without education. If this is not apartheid, what else qualifies as apartheid?

An interesting face to this economic apartheid is what some Ugandan opposition leaders have often cited. That is, the government is profiteering from the war. It is getting military help from the US worth hundreds of million dollars every year to fight LRA in the US’s war against terror. Despite the government many promises to finish off LRA, they have been unable to do so for many years. The IDPS remain trapped in poverty in death camps and without hope, while Uganda government asks for more time to end the rebellion by military means. This is to the extent that many members of Acholi community believe that LRA has provided an excuse for Museveni government to punish the population of Northern and Eastern Uganda for the sins they did not commit. Uganda is in great need for justice, despite the denial by the government and claim to the contrary by the IMF and the World Bank. It needs help from the international community to overcome their inertia to emerge from war. This is where South Africa that has experienced the trauma of discrimination of apartheid can come handy.

On Wednesday 16 August 06, Vincent Otti, the deputy LRM/A chief, telephoned South African High Commissioner to Uganda, T.H. Chiliza to invite South African government to act as co-mediator in Juba peace talks. This was part of Otti’s invitation made over phone read like this:

“I, Lieutenant General Vincent Otti, deputy chairman of the high command and second-in-command of the Lord’s Resistance Army do hereby appeal to the government of the Republic of South Africa to come and act as co-mediator…”

Vincent Otti also called on the government of Uganda to declare a cessation of hostilities:

“In order for the Juba negotiations to be meaningful, successful and binding, the (LRA)... calls upon the government of Uganda to respond positively and declare a cessation of hostilities and respect the agenda and code of conduct agreed upon by the negotiating parties, the mediators and facilitators,

The High Commissioner, Chiliza, told the media in Kampala that LRA invitation has been forwarded to the government of South Africa for final decision, making it abundantly clear that South Africa supports Juba talks in principle, and would not hesitate to participate in any effort to bring peace to Northern Uganda should opportunity arise.

As would be expected, the response from the government of Uganda is that of anger, rejection, and even declaration of war: “We shall not accept new mediators. These terrorists hiding in Congo are telephoning places saying they don’t want the mediation of Riek Machar and now that they want new mediators," retorted President Museveni during a press conference at State House in Kampala.

Museveni went on to explain that his government was asked by the government of South Sudan to offer the LRA an olive branch, "otherwise we had closed the chapter with them", he concluded.

Earlier this week, the government of Uganda delegation expressed disquiet about presence of political and religious leaders from Northern Uganda who have been invited by vice president Riek Machar, the Southern Sudan chief mediator, to come to Juba and act as observers. They include: Gulu District Chairman Norbert Mao, Archbishop of Northern Uganda John Baptist Odama, Bishop Onen Onweng, Prof. Ogenga Latigo, and others.

Guo spokesperson Captain Paddy Akunda told Uganda’s Daily Monitor:
"Our position is clear, we respect the mediator and know that he has got the right to invite anyone as he pleases but only if they keep away from the proceedings of the talks and only come in to advise the mediator separately… “
Surely, the government of Uganda is playing with semantics. What does an observer status means in plain English? It only means one thing: sitting in the proceedings without interfering with or taking part directly in discussions during the negotiations. That way, an observer will be in position to advice the mediator better. Again, it shows the government of Uganda is bent to frustrate the current peace effort.

The government of Uganda has made it clear the Northern MPs like Norbert Mao and Ogenga Latigo are members of an opposition party and therefore their neutrality will not be guaranteed. However, there is a strong moral argument that more credibility will be given to any resulting agreement by involving elected MPs and religious leaders from the North as what will be agreed will impact everyone in the region.

In another development, Peter Odok a former resident district commissioner in Gulu, told reporters in Juba about existence of what he described as “spoilers” amongst the LRA negotiation team “who are telling Joseph Kony not to come to Juba.” He threatened to expose them. Sources in Juba say Ongom might have been pointing finger at members of Acholi Diaspora in the UK who have recently joined the LRA team. Among the LRA’s Diaspora were, Dr. Walter Oweka and Dr. Terence Patio who travelled recently to Juba from the UK at the invitation from the LRA negotiating team were detained for 4 days by South Sudanese authorities. They were released after Josephine Apira, the deputy head of LRA negotiating team intervened. Dr. Walter Oweka is said to be in poor health following a shoulder injury that he might has sustained during his 4-day detention in Juba.

At the same time, the government has intensified its verbal threats to attack LRA positions in Democratic Republic of Congo should peace effort fail.

Given the fact that the government of Uganda has said: no to a temporary ceasefire, no to participation of religious leaders from the Northern Uganda as observers, no to participation of South Africa as a co-mediator, and no to participation of LRA supporters in the Diaspora; it leaves us with no doubt that the government of Uganda is not serious about reaching a just settlement to the conflict. The government does not want anything that will give confidence that the signing parties will honour any future agreement.

The emergency visit by president of South Sudan Salva Kiir to Kampala on Saturday 19th August 2006 had raised hopes of softening Museveni’s position on some of the above issues. As it turned out, it has proved thoroughly disappointing. The president of South Sudan ended agreeing with everything Museveni has called for. Not a single concession was won. For example, president Salva Kiir has argued after returning to Juba from Kampala that it is necessary for LRA to declare their positions in South Sudan and Democratic Republic of Congo. Kiir is also convinced that the LRA must agree on assembly point for their army before any ceasefire could be declared in order to make monitoring of ceasefire possible.

For a movement of LRA size, agreeing up to such uncomfortable terms when they have not reached a comprehensive peace agreement with Kampala is tantamount to a suicide. And with the government of Uganda saying no to everything LRA proposes, even if such a proposal is reasonable and legitimate, it looks as if the peace initiative by the government of Southern Sudan has finally run its course and has hit an impasse.

War drums are once again beating in Northern Uganda much louder than the voices for peace. The Kampala bear is proving too powerful for the nascent government of Southern Sudan to herd. After all, the current leaders are indebted to Museveni for any help extended to SPLA during its fight against Khartoum. President Kiir cannot look president Museveni in the eye sternly.

Probably the time is right for government of Southern Sudan to throw in the towel and hand over the mediation leadership to South African government and other members of international community. The contribution of South Africa will be vital in helping tear down the entrenched Ugandan apartheid system.

Otherwise, 2 million Acholis will continue to languish in death camps in Northern Uganda, as the world community continues to look the other way.


  • I am family members of Acholi and more fact is dear, to get real situation pictures. You are very right when is some conflicts adjuring in different time or stages it will be so difficult for the new generations to understudy reality. From beginning of the conflicts both sides are fighters,(Gorillas, Rebels, Guerillas or any international names for non-powers non-rulers as of the country) time are going one who wont to this experience from the bush fighting to be come like professionally, starting getting more support from war makers US.-CIA. and even forgetting real point of beginning of the conflict. So even our brothers are the some storey as many of parts of the world passed, the more are modern technology the more people will dying for the small issue, like brothers in Darfur are dying because China use veto in General Assembly of UN. and rejected pies kippers to be send in the region. This is very bad way where the world are facing, trading between China and Sudan are mast be separated of genocide, or to be cleared the China is partner in the genocide in Darfur.
    I wont to answer for you question South Africa will not help in stopping apartheid in Uganda because will lost market for the switch and chipotle products.
    The way as you are tacking all brothers must explain the situation and face with all facts of the problem from beginning up to the end.
    -Other news the some web site is lunched for the President Museveni so you can chat with him.
    It as in additional information;
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    News Release
    President addresses South Sudan Parliament
    President Yoweri Museveni has extended condolences to the people of Southern Sudan over the death of Dr. John Garang.

    The President was addressing the Parliament of Southern Sudan this evening in Juba Parliamentary building during his one day official visit.

    He told them that the aircraft in which Dr. Garang and crew died was in perfect condition and this has been confirmed by the investigators.

    Mr. Museveni, however, assured SPLA leaders that he will not rest until “we get to the bottom of the problem”. He said he is in touch with Southern Sudan President Salva Kiir and the widow Rebecca Garang.

    The President said that the same plane had flown Dr. Garang on many missions without any problem. He said that when it crashed, it was a big shock. He said he first met Dr. Garang in 1969 at Dar-es-Salaam University and observed in him a nationalist and pa-Africanist whose contribution was great in the emancipation of the African people.

    He congratulated the people of Southern Sudan and their leaders over 2 things namely for the Comprehensive Peace Accord (CPA) which, he said, represents the emancipation of the people of Southern Sudan. He said that they have the powers to decide what they want.

    He congratulated them for the peaceful succession after the death of Dr. Garang, by electing Mr. Salva Kiir to guarantee the future of the people and the liberation process.

    Mr. Museveni also congratulated President Omar el Bashir of the Sudan for ending, what he called Arab chauvinism and for conceding that Arabs were mistreating black Africans and thereafter decided to end the matter peacefully.

    On the Kony problem, President Museveni referred to it as a confluence of problems between Uganda and the Sudan, saying that from 1966 – 1986, the people of Uganda suffered from gun politics which was introduced by the late Obote in 1966. He said that after 1986, government introduced democratic governance and constitutionalism following the promulgation of the 1995 constitution; but some elements in Uganda, like Kony, still believed in gun politics that had ended.

    The President said that on 22nd August 1986, the Sudan government tried to use those elements like Kony to overthrow the government of Uganda because Sudan suspected Uganda was going to support SPLA. He added that it was after 15th April 2002 that the government of Sudan withdrew support to Kony. He said the conflict had lingered on for 20 years because of the element of Sudanese support to Uganda terrorist elements.

    Mr. Museveni reported that following the withdrawal of the Sudanese support, Uganda sent troops into Southern Sudan and Kony was decisively defeated resulting in his fleeing to the Garamba National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

    He added that the current peace talks in Juba were initiated by Southern Sudan President Salva Kiir. He said that the government of Uganda, therefore, cannot accept another mediator.

    He thanked Mr. Rek Machar for being a serious mediator. He also referred to the recent killings in Southern Sudan and said that the government of Uganda and that of Southern Sudan cannot be defeated by those elements and gave assurance that peace will prevail.

    He advised the people of Sudan to avoid divisions because Khartoum was thriving on differences between blacks. He called for unity between the people of Southern Sudan on a broad minimum programme for their area.

    Drawing from Uganda’s experience, Mr. Museveni said that the people of Southern Sudan must decide on what will be the engine of their recovery programme. In the case of Uganda, he said, the engine has been the private sector. He, therefore, advised that the minimum recovery programme for Southern Sudan should include security, infrastructure and the building of a professional army to protect what they have achieved.

    Mr. Museveni also said that they should put inflation under control and emphasise government discipline on expenditure.

    President Salva Kiir said that he was not surprised that President Museveni has been the 1st Head of State to visit them. He said that Mr. Museveni’s visit was at a critical time when some elements are trying to undermine their peace that they got at a high cost.

    Mr. Kiir said that he invited President Museveni for 2 reasons namely to thank him for the unwavering support to the people of Southern Sudan and also to benefit from his wealth of experience because Uganda has registered an impressive quick recovery within a short time.

    He said that some of the challenges faced by Southern Sudan are similar to those of Uganda. He said that because Uganda helped them to achieve peace, they will ensure that the peace talks reach their logical conclusion so that there is total peace in Uganda and the Sudan.

    The Speaker of the Southern Sudan Parliament Mr. James Wani Igga asked President Museveni to send teachers to Southern Sudan because, he said, Uganda’s system of education is the best in the region.

    President Museveni also laid a wreath on the mausoleum of Dr. John Garang.

    The President was seen off at Juba International Airport by his host President Salva Kiir and Uganda’s delegation to the peace talks led by the Minister of Internal Affairs Dr. Ruhakana Rugunda.

    President Museveni who arrived in Juba earlier in the day was received at the Airport by jubilant crowds who chanted “Abeewo”.

    Mr. Museveni returned home this evening after his successful visit to Juba. ..End.

    News Release

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