JohnAkecSouthSudan

Sunday, August 20, 2006

Can South Africa Help Dismantle Ugandan Apartheid?

By John A. Akec

No one knows the language of oppressor better than those who have experienced it. What is taking place in Northern and Eastern Uganda has been described as genocide. But the policies that sustained the war have in that part of the world also created an apartheid system of sort, which is not less evil, or less destructive than South Africa’s.

It qualifies as genocide because the government’s counter insurgency policy has resulted in massive death rates that are 3 times those experienced in Darfur. That is, more than 1000 people die every week in the displaced persons camps where 2 million Acholis have been forcefully evacuated from their homelands. The figure is equivalent to 98% of population of Northern Uganda region.

ECONOMIC APARTHEID
The government’s counter insurgency policy has fostered a form of economic apartheid between Northern Uganda and the rest of the country. Those relocated into the concentration camps are no longer economically active and unable to earn a living. As the time went by, the forced unemployment has impoverished the population to levels of destitution as insecurity scared away potential investors from the region.

Nowhere are economic disparities between Northern Uganda and the rest of Uganda apparent than in the survey on private sector investment survey conducted by Uganda Investment Authority (UIA) in collaboration with Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS), and the Bank of Uganda (BOU) in 2003. In that survey, of 765 new enterprises (companies) that returned the survey, 77.9% (or 596) were located in Central/Southern region, 12.3%(or 94) in Eastern region, 8.5% (65) in the Western region, and 1.3% (10) in Northern region.

The same report showed that employment opportunities that resulted from new investment in 2001 in terms of number of jobs created were distributed regionally as follows: 71.4% of jobs in Central/Southern region, 18.8% in Eastern region, 9.4% in Western region, and just about 0.4% in Northern region.

Small wonder, other reports by international NGOs working in displaced persons camps in Northern Uganda say while those living below poverty line fell from 57% in 1992 to 37% in 2003 in the West and Central Uganda, those living below poverty line in Northern Uganda has shot up to over 95% over the same period. Over 250,000 children in the region go without education. If this is not apartheid, what else qualifies as apartheid?

An interesting face to this economic apartheid is what some Ugandan opposition leaders have often cited. That is, the government is profiteering from the war. It is getting military help from the US worth hundreds of million dollars every year to fight LRA in the US’s war against terror. Despite the government many promises to finish off LRA, they have been unable to do so for many years. The IDPS remain trapped in poverty in death camps and without hope, while Uganda government asks for more time to end the rebellion by military means. This is to the extent that many members of Acholi community believe that LRA has provided an excuse for Museveni government to punish the population of Northern and Eastern Uganda for the sins they did not commit. Uganda is in great need for justice, despite the denial by the government and claim to the contrary by the IMF and the World Bank. It needs help from the international community to overcome their inertia to emerge from war. This is where South Africa that has experienced the trauma of discrimination of apartheid can come handy.

SOUTH AFRICA TO THE RESCUE
On Wednesday 16 August 06, Vincent Otti, the deputy LRM/A chief, telephoned South African High Commissioner to Uganda, T.H. Chiliza to invite South African government to act as co-mediator in Juba peace talks. This was part of Otti’s invitation made over phone read like this:

“I, Lieutenant General Vincent Otti, deputy chairman of the high command and second-in-command of the Lord’s Resistance Army do hereby appeal to the government of the Republic of South Africa to come and act as co-mediator…”

Vincent Otti also called on the government of Uganda to declare a cessation of hostilities:

“In order for the Juba negotiations to be meaningful, successful and binding, the (LRA)... calls upon the government of Uganda to respond positively and declare a cessation of hostilities and respect the agenda and code of conduct agreed upon by the negotiating parties, the mediators and facilitators,

The High Commissioner, Chiliza, told the media in Kampala that LRA invitation has been forwarded to the government of South Africa for final decision, making it abundantly clear that South Africa supports Juba talks in principle, and would not hesitate to participate in any effort to bring peace to Northern Uganda should opportunity arise.

THE ANGRY RESPONSE FROM THE GOU
As would be expected, the response from the government of Uganda is that of anger, rejection, and even declaration of war: “We shall not accept new mediators. These terrorists hiding in Congo are telephoning places saying they don’t want the mediation of Riek Machar and now that they want new mediators," retorted President Museveni during a press conference at State House in Kampala.

Museveni went on to explain that his government was asked by the government of South Sudan to offer the LRA an olive branch, "otherwise we had closed the chapter with them", he concluded.

Earlier this week, the government of Uganda delegation expressed disquiet about presence of political and religious leaders from Northern Uganda who have been invited by vice president Riek Machar, the Southern Sudan chief mediator, to come to Juba and act as observers. They include: Gulu District Chairman Norbert Mao, Archbishop of Northern Uganda John Baptist Odama, Bishop Onen Onweng, Prof. Ogenga Latigo, and others.

Guo spokesperson Captain Paddy Akunda told Uganda’s Daily Monitor:
"Our position is clear, we respect the mediator and know that he has got the right to invite anyone as he pleases but only if they keep away from the proceedings of the talks and only come in to advise the mediator separately… “
Surely, the government of Uganda is playing with semantics. What does an observer status means in plain English? It only means one thing: sitting in the proceedings without interfering with or taking part directly in discussions during the negotiations. That way, an observer will be in position to advice the mediator better. Again, it shows the government of Uganda is bent to frustrate the current peace effort.

The government of Uganda has made it clear the Northern MPs like Norbert Mao and Ogenga Latigo are members of an opposition party and therefore their neutrality will not be guaranteed. However, there is a strong moral argument that more credibility will be given to any resulting agreement by involving elected MPs and religious leaders from the North as what will be agreed will impact everyone in the region.

In another development, Peter Odok a former resident district commissioner in Gulu, told reporters in Juba about existence of what he described as “spoilers” amongst the LRA negotiation team “who are telling Joseph Kony not to come to Juba.” He threatened to expose them. Sources in Juba say Ongom might have been pointing finger at members of Acholi Diaspora in the UK who have recently joined the LRA team. Among the LRA’s Diaspora were, Dr. Walter Oweka and Dr. Terence Patio who travelled recently to Juba from the UK at the invitation from the LRA negotiating team were detained for 4 days by South Sudanese authorities. They were released after Josephine Apira, the deputy head of LRA negotiating team intervened. Dr. Walter Oweka is said to be in poor health following a shoulder injury that he might has sustained during his 4-day detention in Juba.

At the same time, the government has intensified its verbal threats to attack LRA positions in Democratic Republic of Congo should peace effort fail.


PRESIDENT SALVA KIIR: FLYING BACK TO JUBA EMPTY-HANDED
Given the fact that the government of Uganda has said: no to a temporary ceasefire, no to participation of religious leaders from the Northern Uganda as observers, no to participation of South Africa as a co-mediator, and no to participation of LRA supporters in the Diaspora; it leaves us with no doubt that the government of Uganda is not serious about reaching a just settlement to the conflict. The government does not want anything that will give confidence that the signing parties will honour any future agreement.

The emergency visit by president of South Sudan Salva Kiir to Kampala on Saturday 19th August 2006 had raised hopes of softening Museveni’s position on some of the above issues. As it turned out, it has proved thoroughly disappointing. The president of South Sudan ended agreeing with everything Museveni has called for. Not a single concession was won. For example, president Salva Kiir has argued after returning to Juba from Kampala that it is necessary for LRA to declare their positions in South Sudan and Democratic Republic of Congo. Kiir is also convinced that the LRA must agree on assembly point for their army before any ceasefire could be declared in order to make monitoring of ceasefire possible.

For a movement of LRA size, agreeing up to such uncomfortable terms when they have not reached a comprehensive peace agreement with Kampala is tantamount to a suicide. And with the government of Uganda saying no to everything LRA proposes, even if such a proposal is reasonable and legitimate, it looks as if the peace initiative by the government of Southern Sudan has finally run its course and has hit an impasse.

War drums are once again beating in Northern Uganda much louder than the voices for peace. The Kampala bear is proving too powerful for the nascent government of Southern Sudan to herd. After all, the current leaders are indebted to Museveni for any help extended to SPLA during its fight against Khartoum. President Kiir cannot look president Museveni in the eye sternly.

Probably the time is right for government of Southern Sudan to throw in the towel and hand over the mediation leadership to South African government and other members of international community. The contribution of South Africa will be vital in helping tear down the entrenched Ugandan apartheid system.

Otherwise, 2 million Acholis will continue to languish in death camps in Northern Uganda, as the world community continues to look the other way.

2 Comments:

  • I am family members of Acholi and more fact is dear, to get real situation pictures. You are very right when is some conflicts adjuring in different time or stages it will be so difficult for the new generations to understudy reality. From beginning of the conflicts both sides are fighters,(Gorillas, Rebels, Guerillas or any international names for non-powers non-rulers as of the country) time are going one who wont to this experience from the bush fighting to be come like professionally, starting getting more support from war makers US.-CIA. and even forgetting real point of beginning of the conflict. So even our brothers are the some storey as many of parts of the world passed, the more are modern technology the more people will dying for the small issue, like brothers in Darfur are dying because China use veto in General Assembly of UN. and rejected pies kippers to be send in the region. This is very bad way where the world are facing, trading between China and Sudan are mast be separated of genocide, or to be cleared the China is partner in the genocide in Darfur.
    I wont to answer for you question South Africa will not help in stopping apartheid in Uganda because will lost market for the switch and chipotle products.
    The way as you are tacking all brothers must explain the situation and face with all facts of the problem from beginning up to the end.
    -Other news the some web site is lunched for the President Museveni so you can chat with him.
    It as in additional information;
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    News Release
    ________________________________________
    President addresses South Sudan Parliament
    2006-10-21
    President Yoweri Museveni has extended condolences to the people of Southern Sudan over the death of Dr. John Garang.

    The President was addressing the Parliament of Southern Sudan this evening in Juba Parliamentary building during his one day official visit.

    He told them that the aircraft in which Dr. Garang and crew died was in perfect condition and this has been confirmed by the investigators.

    Mr. Museveni, however, assured SPLA leaders that he will not rest until “we get to the bottom of the problem”. He said he is in touch with Southern Sudan President Salva Kiir and the widow Rebecca Garang.

    The President said that the same plane had flown Dr. Garang on many missions without any problem. He said that when it crashed, it was a big shock. He said he first met Dr. Garang in 1969 at Dar-es-Salaam University and observed in him a nationalist and pa-Africanist whose contribution was great in the emancipation of the African people.

    He congratulated the people of Southern Sudan and their leaders over 2 things namely for the Comprehensive Peace Accord (CPA) which, he said, represents the emancipation of the people of Southern Sudan. He said that they have the powers to decide what they want.

    He congratulated them for the peaceful succession after the death of Dr. Garang, by electing Mr. Salva Kiir to guarantee the future of the people and the liberation process.

    Mr. Museveni also congratulated President Omar el Bashir of the Sudan for ending, what he called Arab chauvinism and for conceding that Arabs were mistreating black Africans and thereafter decided to end the matter peacefully.

    On the Kony problem, President Museveni referred to it as a confluence of problems between Uganda and the Sudan, saying that from 1966 – 1986, the people of Uganda suffered from gun politics which was introduced by the late Obote in 1966. He said that after 1986, government introduced democratic governance and constitutionalism following the promulgation of the 1995 constitution; but some elements in Uganda, like Kony, still believed in gun politics that had ended.

    The President said that on 22nd August 1986, the Sudan government tried to use those elements like Kony to overthrow the government of Uganda because Sudan suspected Uganda was going to support SPLA. He added that it was after 15th April 2002 that the government of Sudan withdrew support to Kony. He said the conflict had lingered on for 20 years because of the element of Sudanese support to Uganda terrorist elements.

    Mr. Museveni reported that following the withdrawal of the Sudanese support, Uganda sent troops into Southern Sudan and Kony was decisively defeated resulting in his fleeing to the Garamba National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

    He added that the current peace talks in Juba were initiated by Southern Sudan President Salva Kiir. He said that the government of Uganda, therefore, cannot accept another mediator.

    He thanked Mr. Rek Machar for being a serious mediator. He also referred to the recent killings in Southern Sudan and said that the government of Uganda and that of Southern Sudan cannot be defeated by those elements and gave assurance that peace will prevail.

    He advised the people of Sudan to avoid divisions because Khartoum was thriving on differences between blacks. He called for unity between the people of Southern Sudan on a broad minimum programme for their area.

    Drawing from Uganda’s experience, Mr. Museveni said that the people of Southern Sudan must decide on what will be the engine of their recovery programme. In the case of Uganda, he said, the engine has been the private sector. He, therefore, advised that the minimum recovery programme for Southern Sudan should include security, infrastructure and the building of a professional army to protect what they have achieved.

    Mr. Museveni also said that they should put inflation under control and emphasise government discipline on expenditure.

    President Salva Kiir said that he was not surprised that President Museveni has been the 1st Head of State to visit them. He said that Mr. Museveni’s visit was at a critical time when some elements are trying to undermine their peace that they got at a high cost.

    Mr. Kiir said that he invited President Museveni for 2 reasons namely to thank him for the unwavering support to the people of Southern Sudan and also to benefit from his wealth of experience because Uganda has registered an impressive quick recovery within a short time.

    He said that some of the challenges faced by Southern Sudan are similar to those of Uganda. He said that because Uganda helped them to achieve peace, they will ensure that the peace talks reach their logical conclusion so that there is total peace in Uganda and the Sudan.

    The Speaker of the Southern Sudan Parliament Mr. James Wani Igga asked President Museveni to send teachers to Southern Sudan because, he said, Uganda’s system of education is the best in the region.

    President Museveni also laid a wreath on the mausoleum of Dr. John Garang.

    The President was seen off at Juba International Airport by his host President Salva Kiir and Uganda’s delegation to the peace talks led by the Minister of Internal Affairs Dr. Ruhakana Rugunda.

    President Museveni who arrived in Juba earlier in the day was received at the Airport by jubilant crowds who chanted “Abeewo”.

    Mr. Museveni returned home this evening after his successful visit to Juba. ..End.


    News Release

    President Decries HIV/AIDS Prevalence Increase
    2006-12-19
    President Yoweri Museveni has decried the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Uganda. The President said this today during a thanksgiving service held at State House, Nakasero to thank God for seeing Uganda through the year 2006. The service ran under the theme “Counting our Blessings.” He said that the present infection levels stand at 136 per 1,000 people ..more
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    Great Lakes’ Region Leaders Sign Pact
    2006-12-16
    Eleven countries have adopted and signed a comprehensive pact on the security, stability and development at the conclusion of the 2nd summit of the International Conference on the Great Lakes’ Region attended by heads of state and government from the region. The 2-day summit that took place at the UN Africa head office in Girigiri Nairobi, was organized under the auspices of the African Union (AU), the United Nations and a group of friends of the region. ..more
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    “Marriage Is Not A Control Mechanism” – Museveni
    2006-12-16
    President Yoweri Museveni has said that marriage should not be treated as a control mechanism but a covenant of trust, transparency and solidarity. The President gave the advice today during the wedding of Mr. Mugisha Sherurah and Ms. Christina Mbabazi Muhumba. The couple took their marriage vows at Kampala Pentecostal Church in Kigoowa in Nakawa division, Kampala district. ..more
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    “African Collective Security Only Way Forward” – Museveni
    2006-12-15
    President Yoweri Museveni, who is attending the 2nd summit of the International Conference on the Great Lakes’ Region at the UN’s Africa headquarters in Nairobi, has described the signing yesterday of the security treaty by member states as a move that will ensure total peace and stability in the region. He said that collective security by Africans is the only way forward for the African continent. ..more
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    President Opens Great Lakes’ Region Conference
    2006-12-14
    President Yoweri Museveni has urged his Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) counterpart Mr. Joseph Kabila to deal with the myriads of criminal forces on the DRC territory. The 2 Heads of State are currently attending the international conference on the Great Lakes’ Region organized by the United Nations at the Gilgil UN Conference Centre in Nairobi. President Museveni congratulated President Kabila upon his election and said that he was congratulating him the 2nd time because he had early congratulated him after the 1st round. ..more
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    President Arrives In Nairobi
    2006-12-13
    President Yoweri Museveni is now in Nairobi, Kenya to attend the 2nd summit of the International Conference on the Great Lakes’ region slated to open tomorrow Thursday 14th December 2006. The 2-day summit is expected to be attended by heads of state and government delegations from 11 countries that form the Great Lakes’ region. They include Angola, Burundi, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Kenya, ..more
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    President Meets Israeli Investors
    2006-12-12
    President Yoweri Museveni has received a delegation of Israeli investors from Invespro Uganda Limited which is a Ugandan registered subsidiary of Green Jewell Investments. The entrepreneurs who called on the President yesterday at State House, Nakasero, were led by Mr. Noah Zonband who is the East Africa representative of Prigat International Limited that is based in Kenya. Other members of the delegation included Mr. Raz Zonband of the Panamanian-based Green Jewell Investments and Mr. Patrick Kaihwaho who is the consultant of the company. ..more
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    President Meets Dairy Delegation
    2006-12-12
    President Yoweri Museveni has said that Uganda can produce enough fruits, food and milk to satisfy the increasing market opportunities in Europe and China but stressed that there is still need for value addition to the country’s products. The President was meeting the Kampala based Dairy Corporation delegation who called on him last night at State House, Nakasero. President Museveni hailed the management of the corporation for tripling its output within 6 months. He said that government will encourage farmers to increase their livestock to meet the growing demand for milk. ..more
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    Govt. Wants To Improve Railway Line
    2006-12-12
    President Yoweri Museveni has said that government policy is geared to facilitating investors to improve and expand the railway network. The President said this today at State House, Nakasero during a meeting with the Commonwealth Business Council delegation led by its Chief Executive Officer Dr. Mohan Kaul. The President stressed the need to improve the railway network for the Port of Dar-es-Salaam to Lake Victoria and extend it from Northern Uganda to Southern Sudan. He commended the proposed policy of Open Sky that is expected to ensure free air transport ..more
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    President Receives Libyan Investors
    2006-12-01
    President Yoweri Museveni has today met a delegation from the Libyan Arab African Investment Company who called on him at State House, Nakasero. Mr. Hassan Treki, head of the company, led the delegation. Others in the delegation included Engineer Abdulbassel el Azzabi who heads the telecommunications sector and Mr. El Haadi Dred who is the company’s Resident Manager in Uganda. ..more
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    Rwanda & Burundi Join EAC
    2006-11-30
    President Yoweri Museveni has called on the people of East Africa to integrate the available resources with the human resource to ensure sustainable development of the region. The President made the call today at the 8th East African Community heads of state summit held at Arusha International Conference Centre in Tanzania. The EAC groups together Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. ..more
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    President Receives Outgoing Cuban Envoy
    2006-11-29
    President Yoweri Museveni has today met the outgoing Cuban Ambassador to Uganda Mr. Ricardo Antonio Sigas who called on him at State House Nakasero to take leave of him. Mr. Sigas has been his Cuban envoy to Uganda for the past 5 years. President Museveni and the envoy appreciated the cordial relationship that happily exists between their 2 countries. The Ambassador said that Cuba has a long term programme of support to African countries and in particular the Great Lakes region. ..more
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    President Urges Health Ministry On HIV/AIDS
    2006-11-06
    President Yoweri Museveni has urged the Ministry of Health and the Uganda Aids Commission to be vigilant in educating the masses, especially the youth, to guard against the deadly HIV/AIDS scourge. The President was this afternoon chief guest at the celebrations to mark the 15th anniversary of the founding of the Joint Clinical Research Centre (JCRC) at Mengo in Kampala district. ..more
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    Museveni And Kikwete Hold Talks
    2006-11-25
    President Yoweri Museveni and his visiting Tanzanian counterpart Mr. Jakaya Kikwete have today held bilateral talks at State House, Nakasero on the 3rd and final day of Mr. Kikwete’s visit to Uganda. In a joint communiqué that was read by State Minister for Regional Co-operation Mr. Isaac Musumba, the two heads of state expressed happiness at the cordial relationship between the two countries. ..more
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    President Museveni Hosts President Kikwete to a state banquet
    2006-11-24
    President Yoweri Museveni has commended the very warm and fraternal relationship between Uganda and Tanzania and saluted the people and leadership of Tanzania for standing steadifast with the people of Uganda in time of need, when the rest of Africa and the world were just reading about miseries as mere statistics. The President was last evening welcoming the Tanzanian leader, H.E. Jakaya Kikwete and his wife Mrs. Salma Kikwete ..more
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    President Kikwete arrives for a 3-day visit
    2006-11-23
    The President of the Republic of Tanzania Mr. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete has arrived in Uganda for a 3 day State visit. President Kikwete accompanied by his wife Mrs.Salma Kikwete and his entourage was received and welcomed to Uganda by President Yoweri Museveni and his wife Mrs. Janet Museveni. The Tanzanian leader later inspected a guard of honor mounted by Officers and men of the Uganda people Defense Forces (UPDF). ..more
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    President receives special message from Kenya
    2006-11-23
    President Yoweri Museveni has received a special message from the President of Kenya Mr. Mwai Kibaki. The message was delivered to the President this evening at State House Nakasero by President Kibaki’s special envoy Mr. Raphael Tuju who is also the Kenyan Minister for Foreign Affairs. President Museveni and the Kenyan envoy discussed regional issues. ..more
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    President attends EU forum at Palais Leysel
    2006-11-16
    The 3-day European Development Days at which a number of African leaders and the European Commission yesterday opened at the Palais L’Eysel in the Belgian capital Brussels. The forum, being attended by President Museveni and other African heads of state and delegations is aimed at promoting meaningful partnership between Europe and the African continent in a bid to aid further the pace and tempo of the development of the African continent. ..more
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    President hosts friends of Uganda in Belgium.
    2006-11-15
    President Yoweri Museveni who is now in Brussels, Belgium to attend the European Development Days Conference that opens later today at the European Commission headquarters has said that Uganda needs entrepreneurs to develop cheap electricity cheap railway transport to the sea and value addition to the country’s numerous raw products. Speaking last night at a reception he hosted at Hilton hotel in honor of the Friends of Uganda Association in Belgium, Mr. Museveni reported that Uganda and Africa has lagged behind in terms of development despite the rich natural resources ..more
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    President arrives in Europe.
    2006-11-14
    President Yoweri Museveni has this afternoon arrived in Brussels Belgium to attend the European Development day’s programme that is slated to begin tomorrow the 15th and end on the 17th November 2006. The programme will take place at the Headquarters of the European Commission in Brussels and will also be graced by over 10 African Heads of State and Government delegations. ..more
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    President meets Indian investor
    2006-11-14
    President Yoweri Museveni has today met Mr. Amar Lulla the Managing Director of CIPLA from India. The meeting took place yesterday at State House, Nakasero. Mr. Amar Lulla is a manufacturer of ingredients which are used in the manufacturing of Anti Retro Viral (ARVs). He intends to open up such a factory in Uganda. Mr. Amar explained to the President that the leading manufacturers of ARVs, India and China
    ..more
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    President commends Aga Khan
    2006-11-11
    President Yoweri Museveni has highly commended His Highness the Aga Khan and The Aga Khan Foundation for being Uganda’s partner in development by investing in the country. The President made these remarks today at a meeting with His Highness the Aga Khan who called on him at Parliamentary Buildings in Kampala. The Aga Khan has been in Uganda for the ceremony of the commissioning of Serena Kampala Hotel ..more
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    President commissions Kampala Serena hotel
    2006-11-10
    President Yoweri Museveni today commissioned Kampala Serena Hotel noting that the successful completion and opening of state of art first class hotel is a clear sign that Uganda’s economy has recovered. The ceremony took place this afternoon in Kampala and was also graced by His Highness the Aga Khan whose foundation is the proprietor of the hotel. Mr. Museveni said that a mere recovery is not enough ..more
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    President commends improved water supply
    2006-11-10
    President Yoweri Museveni has praised the improved water supply to the urban poor in Kampala City. The President made the remarks today during a meeting with officials of the National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NW&SC) led by the General Manager Mr. Harrison Mutekanga, the Resident District Commissioner, Kampala Mr. Stanley Kinyatta and his deputies and the Mayor of Kampala Hajji Nasser Ntege Ssebagala. ..more
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    President clarifies on districts
    2006-11-09
    The President and Commander-in-Chief of the Uganda People’s Defence Forces (UPDF) General Yoweri Museveni has clarified that the aim of creating new districts in the country was to give them some cultural autonomy. The President made the clarification today while delivering a lecture to over 40 Senior Army Officers who are attending an eleven-month grade 2 course at the Senior Command and Staff College, Kimaka in Jinja district. The course has drawn participants from Kenya, Tanzania and host Uganda. ..more
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    By Blogger ENERGOPRADE, At 11:42 AM  

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